Nemesis is a work of detective fiction by Agatha Christie (1890–1976) and first published in the UK by the Collins Crime Club in November 1971 and in the US by Dodd, Mead and Company later in the same year. The UK edition retailed at £1.50 and the US edition at $6.95.
Miss Marple receives a letter from the recently deceased Mr Jason Rafiel, a millionaire whom she had met during a holiday on which she had encountered a murder, which asks her to look into an unspecified crime; if she succeeds in solving the crime, she will inherit £20,000.
Rafiel, however, has left her few clues, not even when or where the crime was committed and who was involved.
Miss Marple's first clue is a tour of famous houses and gardens of Great Britain, arranged for her by Mr. Rafiel prior to his death. She is accompanied on the trip by fourteen other people, at least one of whom she suspects to be related to her enquiries. She learns that one of her companions, Elizabeth Temple, is the retired headmistress of the school which a girl who was engaged to Rafiel's ne'er-do-well son, Michael, attended. Another member of the tour group, Miss Cooke, is a woman she had previously met and discussed gardening with.
Her next clue comes in the form of a woman named Lavinia Glynne; Rafiel had written to Mrs. Glynne and her two sisters before his death, suggesting that Miss Marple spend the most physically challenging few days of the tour with them. Miss Marple accepts Lavinia's invitation, assuming it to be the next part of Mr Rafiel's instructions. She then meets Lavinia's sisters, Clotilde and Anthea Bradbury-Scott and immediately feels there is something odd about Anthea. On talking to the servant, Miss Marple learns that the girl engaged to Michael Rafiel had been adopted by Clotilde after the death of her parents.
On the morning of her return to her party, Miss Marple is told by another member of the tour group that Miss Temple had been knocked unconscious by a rockslide during their hike of the previous day, and was lying in a coma in hospital. The group stays over an extra night to wait for news from the tour guide about Miss Temple's health. It turns out that Professor Wanstead, a pathologist and psychologist interested in the different types of criminal brains, had been instructed by Mr Rafiel to go on the tour. He had examined Michael Rafiel at the request of the head of the prison where Michael was incarcerated; he came to the same conclusion as his friend: Michael was not capable of murder. He also tells her how uninterested Michael's father seemed.
Professor Wanstead then takes Miss Marple to see Miss Temple; in a moment of consciousness, Miss Temple had asked for Miss Marple. Miss Temple wakes only long enough to tell Miss Marple "search for Verity Hunt", and dies that night without reviving again. The three sisters extend their invitation to Miss Marple when she returns to the tour, and she promptly accepts. That night, she discovers that Verity was the girl Clotilde had adopted.
After the inquiry into Miss Temple's death, Miss Marple is visited by Archdeacon Brabazon, who was a friend of Miss Temple's. He then tells Miss Marple that he was going to marry Verity Hunt and Michael Rafiel, but had been sworn to secrecy by Verity. While he disapproved of the secrecy and of Verity marrying Michael, he agreed to marry them because he could see that they were in love. He was most surprised when neither turned up for the wedding.
Miss Marple decides to stay another few nights with the three sisters when the tour moves on. Professor Wanstead travels to London by train on an errand for Miss Marple. Miss Barrow and Miss Cooke decide they would like to visit a nearby church. Later that evening, Miss Marple talks with the sisters about what she thinks may have happened and, while they are doing so, Miss Barrow and Miss Cooke appear, to talk to Miss Marple. They stay for a time and are then invited back for coffee that evening.
As they talk about Miss Temple, Miss Marple suggests that Joanna Crawford and Emlyn Price pushed the boulder, and their alibis are mere fabrication. As they get ready to leave, Miss Cooke suggests that the coffee wouldn't suit Miss Marple, as it will keep her up all night and Miss Marple instead asks for some warm milk. The two ladies soon depart, though each forgets an item and has to return for it.
SPOILER ALERT! DO NOT READ AHEAD IF YOU HAVEN'T READ THE BOOK!
At three o'clock the next morning, Clotilde enters Miss Marple's room. Miss Marple reveals that she knows that Clotilde murdered Verity and hid her in the now-destroyed greenhouse, because she could not stand to see Verity love someone else. She also reveals that she knows that Clotilde killed another girl, Nora Broad, merely in order to (mis)identify the body as Verity's and thus throw suspicion on Michael Rafiel. Just as Clotilde advances toward her, Miss Marple blows on a whistle, which brings Miss Cooke and Miss Barrow—they are bodyguards employed by Mr. Rafiel to protect Miss Marple.
Michael Rafiel is set free. Miss Marple collects her 'fee'.
- Miss Marple: Single woman who is getting frail with age, a natural detective. She takes a request from Jason Rafiel, with little initial information, to solve an unnamed crime for him.
- Jason Rafiel: Millionaire, recently deceased, who first met Miss Marple in A Caribbean Mystery.
- Michael Rafiel: Son of Jason, now held on a murder charge. Jason considers his son a ne'er do well.
- Esther Anderson (née Walters): Mr Rafiel's secretary, who first met Miss Marple in A Caribbean Mystery.
- Verity Hunt: Engaged to Michael Rafiel, but the marriage never happens, and she was found murdered, identified by Clotilde Bradbury-Scott several years earlier.
- Miss Elizabeth Temple: Retired headmistress of the school that Verity Hunt attended, who shares the story of Verity Hunt's engagement with Miss Marple, as they both take the tour of famous houses and gardens. She is injured by a rock slide while Miss Marple takes her day of rest, and dies the next day.
- Miss Cooke: Young woman in the tour group, who Miss Marple recalls seeing in near her home before the tour; later revealed to be sent on the tour by Jason Rafiel, to aid and protect Miss Marple.
- Miss Barrow: One of the fifteen on the tour with Miss Marple, she appears with Miss Cooke. She is later revealed to be sent on the tour by Jason Rafiel to aid and protect Miss Marple, working with Miss Cooke
- Lavinia Glynne: A widow, and one of three sisters who live along the tour route, near the point where the garden to be toured is taxing walk for a frail woman; she was contacted by Jason Rafiel to allow Miss Marple to stay with them for a day until the tour moves on to easier walks.
- Clotilde Bradbury-Scott: Unmarried sister of Lavinia who became attached to Verity Hunt, sent to live with them when her parents died. She seems the most feminine and soft of the three sisters, and least likely to be a murderer.
- Anthea Bradbury-Scott: Unmarried sister of Lavinia and Clotilde.
- Professor Wanstead: One of the fifteen people on the tour with Miss Marple, also at Jason Rafiel's invitation. He is a psychiatrist who examined Michael Rafiel. Wanstead judges Michael as incapable of murder.
- Archdeacon Brabazon: A friend of Miss Temple who tells Miss Marple that he had agreed to officiate at the secret marriage of Michael and Verity. That is an unusual procedure for him, a secret marriage, but he judged them to be truly in love with each other.
- Joanna Crawford: Young woman on the tour with her aunt.
- Emlyn Price: Young man on the tour.
- Nora Broad: Local woman in the area of the Bradbury-Scott home whose body is disfigured making identification difficult.
- Arthur Jackson (mentioned): The valet of Jason Rafiel.
- Miss Knight (mentioned): Former help of Miss Marple.
- Joan Prescott (mentioned): The sister of Canon Prescott. Miss Marple met them, while vacationing on St Honoré.
- Inspector Douglas is the police officer connected with the inquest of the death of Elizabeth Temple.
- Messrs. Broadribb and Schuster: London solicitors.
The Bradbury-Scott familyEdit
- Mr Bradbury-Scott (I) (d) unnamed wife (d)
- Colonel Bradbury-Scott (d) - unnamed wife (died young)
- young mr Bradbury-Scott (died in the war)
- miss Bradbury-Scott (died in childbirth) - unnamed man in New Zealand
- stillborn child
- Major Bradbury-Scott (d) - unnamed wife (d)
- Colonel Bradbury-Scott (d) - unnamed wife (died young)
Literary significance and receptionEdit
As Agatha Christie herself was surely aware given her education, "Nemesis" is a female personification of divine revenge, an inexorable inevitable and unavoidable balancing of fate and final judgement. As such, given the inevitability that Miss Marple will indeed always succeed in uncovering the murderer and see justice done, and given Miss Marple's thoroughly Victorian attitudes to punishment, it is an extremely apt descriptor of the character and a wonderful final story. It is the final story since the "Sleeping Murder" novel was written years earlier albeit published later.
Matthew Coady in The Guardian of November 4, 1971 concluded, "Not a Christie classic but the old hand is astonishingly fresh and the mixture as relaxing as a hot bath."
Maurice Richardson in The Observer of October 31, 1971 said, "The showdown when, alone in bed, quite defenceless with not even a knitting-needle, she is confronted by a brawny great fiend of a butch, is devilish fine. Not one of her best, perhaps, but remarkably inventive, quite worthy of the Picasso of the detective story."
The Daily Mirror of October 28, 1971 said, "With this first-rate story Dame Agatha triumphantly returns to the traditional detective novel after a spell of psychological suspense."
Robert Weaver in the Toronto Daily Star of December 4, 1971 said, "Christie richly deserves the loyalty offered up to her by devotees of the traditional mystery. She is readable and ingenious, and in Nemesis she has going for her the amateur lady sleuth Miss Jane Marple deep in a murder case as she tries to carry out a request that comes in effect from beyond the grave. Beyond 80 Miss Christie remains unflagging."
Robert Barnard: "Miss Marple is sent on a tour of stately gardens by Mr Rafiel. The garden paths we are led up are neither enticing nor profitable. All the usual strictures about late Christie apply."
Film, TV or theatrical adaptationsEdit
BBC 'Miss Marple' SeriesEdit
Nemesis was filmed by the BBC as a 100-minute film in the eighth adaptation (of twelve) in the series Miss Marple starring Joan Hickson as Miss Marple. It was transmitted in two 50-minute parts on Sunday, February 8 and Sunday, February 15, 1987. It sticks relatively close to the novel, with the exception that Miss Temple is killed by a bust being pushed off a balcony while she tours a library rather by a rockslide during a hike.
Adaptor: TR Bowen
Director: David Tucker
Barbara Franceschi as Miss Kurnowitz
Frank Gatliff as Jason Rafiel
Peter Tilbury as Lionel Peel
John Horsley as Professor Wanstead
Jane Booker as Miss Cooke
Alison Skilbeck as Miss Barrow
Valerie Lush as Lavinia Glynne
Margaret Tyzack as Clothilde Bradbury-Scott
Anna Cropper as Anthea Bradbury-Scott
Jackie Downey as Florence
Jonathan Adams as Carter
Diana Agnew as Receptionist
Oliver Parker as London Policeman
David Blake Kelly as Tramp
Bruce Payne as Michael Rafiel
Roger Hammond as Mr Broadribb
Patrick Godfrey as Mr Schuster
Ann Queensberry as Miss Wimpole
Joanna Hole as Madge
Helen Cherry as Miss Temple
ITV 'Marple' SeriesEdit
A later ITV adaptation was also produced in 2007 (and first aired on 1 January 2009) with Geraldine McEwan as part of the third season of her Marple series. As with other adaptations made for this series, this version was only very loosely based on the novel, with the plot, motives and identity of most of the characters and scenes altered, and almost everything about the character of the murderer very substantially changed. Miss Temple and Professor Wanstead are eliminated, the murder of Norah Broad is missing, the character of Madge and Miss Barrow are merged into one and the Bradbury-Scott girls become nuns. It was Geraldine McEwan's final film in Agatha Christie's Marple.
Laura Michelle Kelly as Verity Hunt / Margaret Lumley
Dan Stevens as Michael Rafiel
Richard E. Grant as Raymond West
Amanda Burton as Sister Clotilde
Anne Reid as Mother Agnes
Ronni Ancona as Amanda Dalrymple
Ruth Wilson as Georgina Barrow
Lee Ingleby as Detective Constable Colin Hards
Will Mellor as Martin Waddy
Emily Woof as Rowena Waddy
George Cole as Lawrence Raeburn
Johnny Briggs as Sydney Lumley
Adrian Rawlins as Derek Turnball
Graeme Garden as Matthew Broadribb
BBC Audiobook dramatisationsEdit
Nemesis was also adapted as an audiobook/dramatisation by the BBC starring June Whitfield.
- June Whitfield as Miss Marple
- George A. Cooper as Mr Rafael
- David Swift as Professor Wanstead
- Louie Ramsay as Lavinia Glynne
- Thelma Barlow as Anthea Bradbury-Scott
- Mary Wimbush as Clotilde Bradbury-Scott
- Jill Balcon as Miss Temple
- Desmond Llewelyn as Archdeacon Brabazon
- Tricia Hitchcock as Miss Cooke
- Delia Lindsay as Miss Barrow
- Molly Gaisford as Joanna Crawford
- Jane Whittenshaw as Cherry
- Geoffrey Whitehead as Mr Broadribb
Publication history Edit
- 1971, Collins Crime Club (London), November 1971, Hardcover, 256 pp
- 1971, Dodd Mead and Company (New York), Hardcover, 271 pp
- 1973, Pocket Books (New York), Paperback, 229 pp
- 1974, Fontana Books (Imprint of HarperCollins), Paperback, 192 pp
- 1976, Ulverscroft Large-print Edition, Hardcover, 421 pp ISBN 0-85456-476-4
- 2006, Marple Facsimile edition (Facsimile of 1971 UK first edition), May 2, 2006, Hardcover, ISBN 0-00-720859-6
The novel was first serialised in the UK weekly magazine Woman's Realm in seven abridged instalments from September 25 (Vol 27, No 702) to November 6, 1971 (Vol 27, No 708), with illustrations by Len Thurston.
In North America the novel was serialised in the Star Weekly Novel, a Toronto newspaper supplement, in two abridged instalments from October 16 to October 23, 1971 with each issue containing the same cover illustration by Laszlo Gal.
- Czech: Nemesis (Nemesis)
- German: Das Schicksal in Person (Destiny in Person)
- Finnish: Neiti Marple koston jumalattarena (Miss Marple as the Goddess of Revenge)